What is XMPP ❓ — Extensible Messaging & Presence Protocol

What is XMPP — Extensible Messaging & Presence Protocol?

It is an XML-driven protocol utilized typically in open standard communication. To say it concisely, it is a chat protocol that permits the seamless to and fro sending of essential XML components such as data. Besides making IM and real-time ‘talks’ possible, XMPP also finds its applications in contact list maintenance and presence details.

The Usage

XMPP is most generally used in forthright message interaction between two points, checking the user status, sharing the status details with the server. It also takes care of server status record keeping, subscription management, contact list updates, and blockading certain users.

The Attributes

  • It’s decentralized.
  • It supports the asynchronous exchange of data/information.
  • Transmits tiny pieces of the data instead of forwarding the big chunks directly.
  • It works over TCP.
  • Network configuration and components (hardware/software) has no role to play in the XMPP-based data transmission.
  • It is designed for client-server model.
  • It uses 3 statuses, namely ‘offline’, ‘busy’, or ‘online’, to tell about the status of a user or network.
  • It transfers data back and forth between two end-points.

XMPP Architecture

On a structural level, XMPP shares great similarities with protocols that work on the application layer. For example, it also concerns uniquely named clients communicating over an associated server. Enforcing the protocol as per both clients, XMPP monitors and handles routing for them.

  • The presence stanza defines the network or user’s present status to others. For example, the user/network is online or offline.
  • Message stanza is a pushing instrument essential for chat messages exchange.
  • IQ stanza is the element that XMPP utilizes for data requests and modification. Just as HTTP has GET and POST, XMPP has IQ stanza.

How does XMPP protocol work?

The entire processing of XMPP relies upon the client-server architecture that interests message transmission to the server first and then to the clients.

XMPP Features

Fundamental features that make XMPP stand out from other protocols are as under:

  • Asynchronous Push Messaging
  • Client-Server Architecture
  • Persistent TCP Connections
  • Decentralized Hosting
  • Gateways

XMPP Protocol Example

XMPP enjoys the reputation of a core element for many communication apps that we use presently. Some of the most famed apps, developed using XMPP, are as mentioned below.

  • WhatApp is built using a proprietary XMPP.
  • The amazing chat capability of Zoom is all because of XMPP.
  • For instant push notification delivery, Apple uses XMPP both in the iPhone and Mac.
  • XMPP is used in the chat functionality of Grindr.

Benefits of XMPP

Backed by IETF and embraced by thousands of developers, XMPP has become a mainstream open standard protocol for chat application development.

  • A Reliable Protocol to Back upon
  • Improves Communication Infrastructure for you
  • Guarantee of Delivery
  • Support by most of the Standard Programming Languages
  • Decentralized
  • Higher Security
  • Uninterrupted Transmission of Data
  • Server-to-Server Transfers
  • Compatibility

The Crux

Paramount for constructing applications adept in real-time communication, XMPP (Extensible Messaging & Presence Protocol) is an utterly extendable protocol. Read the above article and find out other particulars about this inventive protocol. We have tried covering it comprehensively.



Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Ivan Novikov

Ivan Novikov

CEO at Wallarm. Application security platform to prevent threats and discover vulnerabilities in a real-time.